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Last update: May 2021

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Reference Sequence by Chromosome

Reference Sequence by Chromosome
The IWGSC has coordinated and endorsed projects to generate reference sequences for the 21 bread wheat chromosomes.

In 2006, the IWGSC adopted a chromosome-by-chromosome sequencing strategy based on physical maps and divided the work among 20 participating countries. 

Individual chromosomes and chromosomes arms were separated by flow cytometry, BAC libraries were generated and fingerprinted to produce physical maps and minimum tiling paths were then sequenced and assembled.


Project Leader: Curtis Pozniak, University of Saskatchewan, CA

1B & 4B

Project Leader: Etienne Paux, INRA, FR


Project Leader: Curtis Pozniak, University of Saskatchewan, CA


Project Leader: Frédéric Choulet, INRA, FR


  • Choulet et al., Structural and Functional Partitioning of Bread Wheat Chromosome 3B. Science, 18;345(6194):1249721. doi: 10.1126/science.1249721.
  • Glover NM, Daron J, Pingault L, et al. Small-scale gene duplications played a major role in the recent evolution of wheat chromosome 3B. Genome Biology, 2015;16(1):188. doi: 10.1186/s13059-015-0754-6.
  • Pingault, L. et al. Deep transcriptome sequencing provides new insights into the structural and functional organization of the wheat genome. Genome Biology 16, 29 (2015). doi: 10.1186/s13059-015-0601-9


Project Leader: Helena Salina, Institute Cytology and Genetics, RU


Project Leader: Hikmet Budak, Sabanci University, TR

6A & 2D

Project Leader: Klaus Mayer, IPK Gatersleben, DE


Project Leader: Hirokazu Handa, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, JP


Project Leader: Rudi Appels, Murdoch University, AU


Project Leader: Simen Sandve, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, NO


  • Integration of mate pair sequences to improve shotgun assemblies of flow-sorted chromosome arms of hexaploid wheat. Tatiana Belova, Bujie Zhan, Jonathan Wright, Mario Caccamo, Torben Asp, Hana Šimková, Matthew Kent, Christian Bendixen, Frank Panitz, Sigbjørn Lien, Jaroslav Doležel, Odd-Arne Olsen and Simen R Sandve (2013) BMC Genomics 14(1): 222. doi 10.1186/1471-2164-14-222


Project Leader: Hana Simkova, Institute of Experimental Botany, CZ


  • An efficient approach to BAC based assembly of complex genomes
    Visendi, P., Berkman, P.J., Hayashi, S., Golicz, A.A., Bayer, P.E., Ruperao, P., Hurgobin, B., Montenegro, J., Chan, C-K. K., Staňková, H., Jacqueline Batley, J., Šimková, H., Doležel, J., Edwards, D.
    Plant Methods, 12:2 , 2016
  • Chromosomal genomics facilitates fine mapping of a Russian wheat aphid resistance gene
    Staňková, H., Valárik, M., Lapitan, N.L.V., Berkman, P.J., Batley, J., Edwards, D., Luo. M.-Ch., Tulpová, Z., Kubaláková, M., Stein, N., Doležel, J., Šimková, H.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 128: 1373-1383, 2015
  • BioNano genome mapping of individual chromosomes supports physical mapping and sequence assembly in complex plant genomes
    Staňková, H., Hastie, A.R., Chan, S., Vrána, J., Tulpová, Z., Kubaláková, M., Visendi, P., Hayashi, S., Luo, M., Batley, J., Edwards, D., Doležel, J. and Šimková, H. (2015)
    Plant Biotechnol. J., doi: 10.1111/pbi.12513